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Turkish Women Mostextremebeauties.com Www.loly33.com Szh 1 Most Extreme Beauties 眼睛色彩 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

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过去把人類虹膜的基色只有三種:褐色、藍色和綠色,其他顏色的虹膜則是這三種顏色的變體。但这一分类方法被批评为过于简化。[14]近来研究把虹膜颜色分为九种。[15]人类虹膜颜色在儿童期会发生戏剧性改变。另外,有的人具有蓝色或绿色虹膜但围绕瞳孔为褐色环,这使得眼睛色彩的分类更为复杂。

白化症患者則有粉紅色虹膜,這是由於其虹膜中沒有色素,只能顯示出微血管的顏色。

褐色[编辑]

褐色是最常見的人類虹膜顏色。褐色虹膜含有大量黑色素,深褐色虹膜看起來像黑色。褐色虹膜被認為是人類虹膜的顯性基因,但最近的研究認為這不一定正確。

淡褐色[编辑]

淡褐色的眼睛是瑞利散射和中等程度的黑色素在虹膜前方膜層的組合所造成。淡褐色很難界定。它們常被描述成淺褐色或黃褐色。有人認為淡褐色是褐色和藍色虹膜的中間色。

琥珀色與黃色[编辑]

琥珀色在其他動物上較為常見,它比棕色更淺,很少在人類出現,又被稱為貓眼色。在歐洲比例多,或多是混血兒。

綠色[编辑]

綠色為罕見的虹膜顏色。在歐洲的凱爾特人日耳曼人斯拉夫人中比例較高;歐洲以外,一些普什圖人土耳其人、古代吉尔吉斯人也有綠色虹膜。

灰色[编辑]

灰色被認為是藍色虹膜的變種。為罕見的虹膜顏色。

藍色[编辑]

藍色虹膜在歐洲比較常見,全世界約8%的人口有藍色虹膜。北歐人如冰島人、芬蘭人和拉脫維亞人約80%以上為藍色眼睛。

紫色[编辑]

紫色為藍色虹膜的變種,是非常少見的顏色。如已故名人伊莉莎白·泰勒

粉紅色[编辑]

由於虹膜中沒有色素,只能顯示出微血管的顏色,故為粉紅色。白化症患者就擁有粉紅色虹膜。

異常症狀[编辑]

白化症患者可能擁有粉紅色眼睛。另外在虛構故事中,成為吸血鬼的人類眼睛色彩也會變成紅色。

醫學涵義[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Prota G, Hu DN, Vincensi MR, McCormick SA, Napolitano A. Characterization of melanins in human irides and cultured uveal melanocytes from eyes of different colors. Exp Eye Res. 1998 Sep;67(3):293-9. PMID 9778410.
  2. ^ Wielgus AR & Sarna T. Melanin in human irides of different color and age of donors. Pigment Cell Res. 2005 Dec;18(6):454-64. PMID 16280011.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Athro Limited website. Morris PJ. Phenotypes and Genotypes for human eye colors.
  4. ^ Oliphant LW. Pteridines and purines as major pigments of the avian iris. Pigment Cell Res. 1987 1(2):129-31. PMID 3507666.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Proc. IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision. Huiqiong Wang, Stephen Lin, Xiaopei Liu, Sing Bing Kang. Separating Reflections in Human Iris Images for Illumination Estimation.
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Sturm RA & Frudakis TN. Eye colour: portals into pigmentation genes and ancestry. Trends Genet. 2004 Aug;20(8):327-32. PMID 15262401
  7. ^ Grant MD & Lauderdale DS. Cohort effects in a genetically determined trait: eye colour among US whites. Ann Hum Biol. 2002 Nov-Dec;29(6):657-66. PMID 12573082
  8. ^ Rebbeck TR, Kanetsky PA, Walker AH, Holmes R, Halpern AC, Schuchter LM, Elder DE, Guerry D. "P gene as an inherited biomarker of human eye color." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Aug;11(8):782-4. PMID 12163334
  9. ^ "Eye colour is more complex than two genes." Athro, Limited. Retrieved September 1, 2006.
  10. ^ entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=227240
  11. ^ cs/howthingswork/f/eyecolor.htm
  12. ^ Paul Rincon, Genetics of eye colour unlocked, BBC News, 20 December, 2006.
  13. ^ Duffy DL, Montgomery GW, Chen W, Zhao ZZ, Le L, James MR, Hayward NK, Martin NG, and Sturm, RA "A Three–Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Haplotype in Intron 1 of OCA2 Explains Most Human Eye-Colour Variation" Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2002 80:000, 2007.
  14. ^ Brues, A. M. 1975. Rethinking human pigmentation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 43: 387-391.
  15. ^ Mackey, D. A., C. H. Wilkinson, L. S. Kearns, and A. W. Hewitt. 2011. Classification of iris colour: review and refinement of a classification schema. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 39: 462-471.

參見[编辑]